Monday, September 30, 2019
Explore the ways Wilde presents late nineteenth century women. What he is saying about the fashionable women of the time, their interests, ideas, attitudes and treatment in A Women f No Importance? A woman of no importance is a play about the upper and middle class. Wilde uses the women to portray is attitudes and views on the society of the nineteenth century. He portrays women in a way women would not have behaved at that time; this gives a comical atmosphere to the audience. In 1893 A women of no importance would have been very entertaining to watch, the audience would have found the play amusing however they would have been laughing at themselves as Wilde wrote the play to criticize the society. The playÃ¢â¬â¢s first setting is a female home with conversation between women; Wilde may have done this to show the importance of women. Lady Caroline is the first character the audience meet; Wilde may have also done this for a purpose. From the title Ã¢â¬ËLadyÃ¢â¬â¢ we know Lady Caroline is a wealthy and high up in the aristocracy in England. She is a typical member of the high society; she has a very dominating overbearing personality and shows pride in her position. The Audience would have immediately recognised this from Lady CarolineÃ¢â¬â¢s conversation with Hester. She speaks down to her American guest, Hester who is travailing alone, Ã¢â¬Å"you have no country houses, I am told, in America?Ã¢â¬ Another theme that Wilde conveys through women is the theme Hypocrisy and double standards. This is again shown through Lady Caroline and her attitudes towards the puritan Hester. Lady Caroline criticises lady Hunstaton choice of guests Ã¢â¬Å"But Mrs Allonby is hardly a very suitable personÃ¢â¬ but then praises Lady Hunstaton for inviting her to a pleasant party, Wilde is effectively satirising members of high society. Hester vocalises her opinion that she dislikes Mrs Allonby but Lady Caroline patronises Hester Ã¢â¬Å"I am not sure, that foreigners like yourself should cultivate like or dislikes.Ã¢â¬ suggesting that Hester is not a valued member of society. Wilde mocks the attitude of the high society through the ignorant women. Lady Caroline is not as knowledgeable as she likes to make out, she continually keeps getting the name of the politician wrong, mistaking him for Ã¢â¬ËMe kettleÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬Å"Kevil, my love kevil.Ã¢â¬ The audience would mock Lady Caroline for this foolish mistake she keeps making. Hester WorsleyÃ¢â¬â¢s title is changed as the play progresses. Hester is first referred to as Ã¢â¬ËMiss WorsleyÃ¢â¬â¢ then she becomes known as the Ã¢â¬ËAmericanÃ¢â¬â¢ and finally Ã¢â¬ËA puritanÃ¢â¬â¢. Hester is a contrast to all the other women in A women of no importance and all the women take a dislike to her she told me yesterday, and in quite a loud voice, that she was only eighteen. It was most annoying.Ã¢â¬ She has strong morals, values and opinions which she is not afraid to express Ã¢â¬ËI dislike London Dinner PartiesÃ¢â¬â¢. Wilde may have used HesterÃ¢â¬â¢s character to present his on views on the English aristocratic society. Members of the high society frown upon those who are unmarried Ã¢â¬Å"I donÃ¢â¬â¢t think that England should be represented abroad by unmarried manÃ¢â¬ being married is more socially accepted. This gives the audience an impression of how shallow the society was and how status and social position dictate how people lived their lives. Lady CarolineÃ¢â¬â¢s and Sir Johns is very different to a traditional Victorian marriage. Usually the man is the dominant one and women were known as menÃ¢â¬â¢s property. However Wilde contrasts this view, by Lady Caroline having control over her husband, being the dominant one in the relationship Ã¢â¬Å"John you should have your muffler. What is the use of my always knitting mufflers for you if you donÃ¢â¬â¢t wear them?Ã¢â¬ Their relationship is clearly showing a lack of love and affection. Their relationship is more like a child and parent relationship because of the idea of Lady Caroline Ã¢â¬ËspoilingÃ¢â¬â¢ Sir John. Wilde is suggesting that they are together out of convenience and presentation. Lady Caroline gives her husband orders in the same way lady Hunstaton orders her servants Ã¢â¬Å"you had better go and put your overshoes at once.Ã¢â¬ During the Victorian times when A women of no importance was written, women rights were begging to increase. In 1857 the matrimonial causes Act was established, in 1882 married womenÃ¢â¬â¢s property act was confirmed, which gave women more rights and power over themselves, property and their children. These factors contributed to the way Wilde presented certain women especially Lady Caroline and Mrs Allonby. Mrs Allonby is very similar to lord Illingworth they are both described as Ã¢â¬ËdandiesÃ¢â¬â¢ they use language which is intended to shock the audience. At the end of act one is it clear that Mrs Allonby is flirting with Lord Illingworth Ã¢â¬Å"What a thoroughly bad man you must be!Ã¢â¬ Wilde creates Mrs Allonby as a character who considers being a person who restricts the morals and norms of the society, in Victorian times there would have been very strict morals and social codes. Ã¢â¬Å"Women adore failures, they lean on usÃ¢â¬ Mrs Allonby is going against the stereotype, the man having control within Victorian marriages. At the end of Act one Lord Illingworth reads Mrs ArbuthnotÃ¢â¬â¢s letter, he says Ã¢â¬Å"no one in particular A Woman of no importanceÃ¢â¬ , the title of the play, which demonstrates WildeÃ¢â¬â¢s views on the treatment of women in society. Act 1 ends giving the audience an impression of a self-concerned, hypocritical society. Wilde presents these ideas through the use of comedy which give a strong message to the audience.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
Consider the final resolution of the novel. Is the ending a fairy tale one (recall that fairy tales end with Ã¢â¬Å"and they lived happily ever afterÃ¢â¬ )? How does the novel expand upon and complicate this ending? Does the ending play up the romance, or the social satire? What is the final message, which the novel leaves us with? Many fairy tales and love stories end with a marriage and a happy ending. In many ways, Pride and Prejudice did have a fairy tale ending. Seeing Elizabeth and Jane each getting married to the men they love at the conclusion of the novel, implies a fairy tale ending. On the other hand, neither Charlotte nor Lydia experience happy marriages. Although the novel displays romantic characteristics, I perceived DarcyÃ¢â¬â¢s actions in using his social status and fortune to help LizyÃ¢â¬â¢s family, to make the novel seem somewhat of a satire. I would have to say that the final message of the novel is that the greatest happiness you can find in life is love. The story starts off showing that being loved back by the one you love is an impossible situation to achieve in real life. Even though Darcy, because he is handsome and rich, is rejected by Lizzie she later discovers that she did not realize she truly did love him. In the end, two of the main characters end up getting married and living happily ever after. In addition, two not so important characters end up with an unhappy marriage. This novel shows that in life there might not always be a happy ending but is not a catch-22!
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Are our zoos cruel to wild animals Essay Zoos are places that often visited by the people for recreation, moreover for the family who has child. They can find many kinds of animal, without going to the wild forest. Zoos can make the visitors happy, but it might not be the same condition as the wild animalÃ¢â¬â¢s feeling. I trust that zoos are cruel to the faunas. Numeruous people think that zoos are good for the wild animals. Keeping animals in the zoos can save the animals from extinction than let them free in their habitat. In their wild habitat, the animal might be killed by their enemies. If they live in the zoo, they could not be killed by their predators because they live in each cage. In addition, they also think that not all of the zoo are cruel to the wild animal because some of them have standart operational procedures how to protect animal in the zoos, for example is Safari Park Zoos, the biggest zoos in Indonesia. On the other hand, there are some reasons that can explain why zoos are cruel to the animals. First of all, zoos are not condusive for wild animalÃ¢â¬â¢s life. They should live in their free habitat. They could feel bored with the limited place that is available in the zoo. Also they cannot interact with the other animals. It can make them feel depressed. If the faunas feel uncomfortable with their habitat, they cannot reproduce well. So, their offspring will be stopped and the wild animals will be extinct. Except that, the zookeepers also make some mistakes. The zookeepers usually does not take care of the animals. They does not give the suitable food for the animals, does not keep the animals clean, and does not give the good treatment for the animals which are getting sick. The zookeeper sometimes exploitate the animals for their commercial aims. They do not care with their condition. Perhaps the wild animal is already tired, but the zookeeper still force them to entertain the visitors. The examples are elephant and dolphin which work hard for entertainment events in the zoo. All in all, it requires the zoos management to improve their ability in managing the zoos. They can decorate the zoos as similar as possible to their natural habitat. They also should make training for the zookepers. So, they can give the better treatment for the animals. Are our zoos cruel to wild animals. (2016, Apr 02).
Friday, September 27, 2019
Role of commercial banks in causing the financial crisis - Term Paper Example On the other side of Europe, the G7 financial ministers have assumed the crisis to be an American problem until much of the European banking system effectively collapsed. In countries such as Germany, the bailing out of the major industries including the Hypo Real estate as well as European mega banks came to hit them hard as they are the big lenders. Other nations like Britain emulated what was happening and commendably made their banking systems to become national. By October 2008 many of the European countries including Canada had gone so far as to guarantee not only the deposits but as well the debts of the banks as well. The financial system in the world is the umbrella body that will be concerned with how all the institutions that deal with finances will work including the borrowing of money in the form of loans that will be repaid in a period that will be short or relatively longer. At times, the webs of debt and credit have always been fragile in times of panic, spreading problems from a part of the global economy to the other. The reason that is responsible for this is that when one link in the very intricate chain becomes weak and breaks and defaults on some debt, it can leave creditors hazardously short of funds, unable to assure the credit of other firms. In this way, the consequences of one failure can spread throughout the entire economy and hence the entire money market (Roubini and Mihm 117) . There are always marketing risks arising when financial institutions trade assets and liabilities as well as derivatives as opposed to holding them for longer investment, funding or hedging purposes, (Saunders and cornett 184). When this happens, the financial institutions are assumed to directly control the maturities of their assets and liabilities as well as the interest issues are concerned. As interest rates fall, many mortgage borrowers seek to repay their existing loans and refinance at a lower rate.
Thursday, September 26, 2019
How Sensory Impairments Affect Gross and Fine Motor Skills in Children with Multi-sensory Impairments - Essay Example ess and improve his learning will be discussed at length along with a comprehensive reasoning behind the choices made and their effectiveness when implemented. My role in relation to this project was chiefly concerned with observing and working with a pupil. It was important to collaborate with the physiotherapist, the occupational therapist, and the support staff as they provided additional information about the pupil. It was also very fortunate that my colleagues fully supported this project and wanted to find a way to improve the learning opportunities of the pupil. The aim of this assessment was to facilitate teaching strategies and activities that would improve his movement experience within the learning environment. I wanted my pupil to develop a greater sense of autonomy in terms of what he could achieve with the support of adults, and what he could achieve independently. The implication of sensory impairments on childÃ¢â¬â¢s motor development: Ã¢â¬Å"Movement is a feature o f all manÃ¢â¬â¢s activities. Through the movement of our bodies we can learn to relate the inner-self to the outer worldÃ¢â¬ - Laban, 1948:13 A typical infant follows a known developmental progression that starts at birth. As the infant grows and his central nervous system matures, the gross motor skills develop in a head to foot progression (Gesell, 1940). The gross motor skills occur in a typical sequence. However, these skills can only develop as the infant also develops balance, coordination and the postural control needed to move his body in space (Shumway-Cook & Woollacott, 1985). An infant's desire to reach out and explore his surroundings is the primary motivator that eventually leads to gross motor development. When an infant's sensory systems (e.g. visual, auditory, tactile, motor, etc.) are... This report approves that children initiate independent movement and exploration because of what they see and hear. They observe the movement of others and learn to imitate them. In the case of the blind / visually impairment child, the primary mode of obtaining information is unreliable, so the child would likely utilize other means of gaining information that can be formulated into other sensory concepts. Hearing is the only distance sense available to the blind / visually impaired infant. Unfortunately, even with input from the hearing and other senses, there is no guarantee that the information would have meaning to the child. Sensory input that is absent has a cumulative effect on the interpretation of the blind / visually impaired child. The child also has no control over the presence or absence of sound in the environment. This essay makes a conclusion that this assignment was initiated by a description of his growing interest in this subject. It then proceeded to discuss the importance of movement on individual development and the effects of sensory impairment on the movement skills development of Pupil Z. His aim was to observe Pupil Z and based on his findings, the author have come up with strategies which could be used to support the pupil in his learning. Through collaborations and a number of observations he planned, carried out, and evaluated with Pupil Z, key issues arose- how to organise Pupil Z within the physical environment in line with school policies and procedures, how to ensure the health and physical well-being of pupil and the staff supporting him.
Effective Management in Construction Industry - Essay Example These materials are useful even to construction managers with general knowledge on management. This essay is geared towards putting together the essential components as far as construction manager's roles are concerned in ensuring the timeliness of a specific project. It tries to emphasize the traditional yet crucial management functions such as planning, organizing, staffing, budgeting, and coordinating and its contribution to the completion of the project within deadlines set. This also provides inputs or synthesis of studies related to construction industry that is contributory to improving implementation efficiency and completed projects' quality. Let us consider a project and its management in the general context in order to understand the process. Project management in the universal context is defined by most literatures as a process by which an idea or project is created, processed, and accepted, and from which resources, whether materials, financial and manpower, are allocated, directed, and carefully coordinated to achieve the goals with the optimum quality, cost, and timeliness (Hendrickson 1998, Jones 2003, FTA 2006:1-9). Based on the definition of the Federal Transit Administration, a project is "made up of a group of interrelated work activities constrained by a specific scope, budget, and schedule to deliver capital assets needed to achieve the strategic goals of an Agency" (2006: 1-3) or a corporate organization for that matter. These aspects hold specifically true for construction projects, over-all goals of which revolve around the idea of delivering the project on time, with quality, and ensuring optimum benefits to the company and the owner. The interrelated tasks inherent in a project, in most cases, require specialized workers to handle and deal with. The efficiency of the management teams in handling the works within a project dictates the pace by which it is done and is among the most crucial in completing the project within the time frame. Besides, it is the management that closely deals with the owner, users or sponsor of a construction project and "it will be wise for any owner to have a clear understanding of the acquisition process in order to maintain firm control of the quality, timeliness and cost of the completed facility."(Hendrickson 1998) There are a lot of approaches to project management that a project manager can use depending on the type of work to be done. Individual projects may vary in their scope of work and life cycle. Recent innovative approaches to project management as far as construction industry is concerned are a subject of many researches and studies in the field. These studies and recommendations from researches can be applied in the actual management of the project. FTA (2006:1-9) states that the project management process begins with identification of the user requirement, project constraints, resource needs, and establishment of realistic objectives to meet the strategic goals. The common life cycle is presented in Figure 1. It usually starts with user demand and ends up to the structures intended usable life. Figure 1 The Project Life Cycle of a Constructed Facility (Hendrickson 1998) The primary concern of the construction manager is
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Critical thinking - Case Study Example The bid is recorded as Ã¢â¬Å"one of the shock and exasperationÃ¢â¬ that could only bring jubilation among the small bid team from the tiny Gulf state that had travelled to Switzerland. Ã The success of the bid brought with it a mired of questions from the potential counterparts who could not make it. First was the manner in which it could have succeeded with the vast representation of big countries in the committee. The capacity to host an event of such magnitude and their inexistence in the football arena was questionable. The country itself has very hash temperatures, which could not favor any tournament of this kind. It was evident that high profile and highly influential figures like The UEFA president Michel Platini had voiced their opposition to the notion. He said, Ã¢â¬Å"You cannot possibly play football in Qatar.Ã¢â¬ (YANKS ABROAD 2013) One of the executive committee members Mr. Franz Beckenbauer stated, Ã¢â¬Å"One should think about a different solution.Ã¢â¬ It was more evident that there were some hidden tactics behind the bid when a number of senior FIFA officials with the inclusion of Qatar head of the Asian Football Confederation, Mr. Mohammed bin Hammam were suspended as a result of questioning the legitimacy of Qatar wining the bid. There are also concerns raised on the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s commitment to Sharia law, which does not support homosexuality and the questionable human rights records. The case has been viewed as a possible reaction from the looser of the bid that controls the huge numbers of football fans in the aim to water down the tournament and get a revote. This is possible because they have millions on internet users. The temperatures were viewed to be attainable through control but would cost the country billions of cash higher that the expenses used in the South African tournament. On the bribery case, FIFA President exclaimed, Ã¢â¬Å"we are anxiously
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Retail Internationalisation - Essay Example Retailers like Marks & Spencer, Next, Arcadia, Debenhams, Asda, Tesco, Bhs, New Look and John Lewis are very famous in the UK for clothing retail internationalisation. This paper evaluates the leading factors behind the internationalisation of retailers in the UK from clothing perspective. It also provides the major reasons causing these retailers to move beyond the domestic market and seek opportunities internationally. Retailers around the work have been increasingly moving towards internationalisation in search of better business opportunities. This is ion particular on the rise among UK retailers that have moved towards foreign markets at a fast rate over the last few decades. Retail internationalisation is important for getting concept, sourcing and operational development. It further provides remarkable chances to grow and shine. Due to internationalisation, accumulation of information also takes place. It is very difficult to get all these facilities without moving outside (Akehurst and Alexander, 1996). There happen to be several factors that either push companies from domestic market or pull them towards internationalisation. These factors could be in the form of restrictive environment, saturated market and high competition in home market. Most importantly, the growth opportunities in the international market along with less intense competition and cultural proximity, greatly attract retai lers to new foreign markets. Companies go for retail internationalisation because of its advantages. The retailers that have gone for internationalisation and opened their branches or franchise or export in foreign countries gain several benefits. They learn a lot about the particular market, they build up their source and take the technological and other advantages to grow and survive in the market. One of the reasons behind a company to go overseas market is the unavailability of growth opportunities in the home market. (Treadgold, 2000) The companies limited to the domestic market do not advance in the business in the same manner as compared to those that tend to go abroad. Debenhams, one of the leading international clothing retailers in UK, has achieved potential growth over the last four years. The company went for internationalisation for growth and prosperity. The company had been facing difficulties in the hometown. It started to internationalise from 1990 and entered into the Middle East market and the n went to Malaysia and Hungary etc. during the period of internationalisation the company achieved remarkable success (Jones, 2003) Push factors influencing retail internationalisation are the facilities that are not available in the hometown. These factors may be cheaper labour, land or the opportunities, which are not available in the local markets. The other factors may be the market conditions i.e. regulatory environment, political and economic conditions etc. in which the survival of an organisation is difficult (Dawson, 1994). The firms doing business in the international market are mostly in search of place where the business could maximise its profits with minimum risk and investment. The motive behind different retailers to enter into various markets may be different, depending on the retailer and the market the business
Monday, September 23, 2019
Alternative ecocnomic futures - Essay Example Larson Inc. should hedge itself against any adverse price movements and fluctuations. What Larson Inc. could have done is to buy its inputs in one country and at the same time sells a futures contract for the same amount of input. When the inventory is utilized, the company can buy back the futures contract. The price change occurring during the two transactions will effectively be cancelled by the mutually compensatory movements in the cash and the futures holdings. In this scenario, futures will provide insurance. Larsons Inc. is betting on the correlation between the spot and the futures prices to move together. Another use of alternative economic futures by Larson Inc. can be that of interest rate futures, which will help it to lock the future investment rate. The use of debt to finance its expansion needs and working capital expenses can protect it from any changes in the interest rates. For any anticipated upwards movement in the interest rates, Larson Inc. can buy the futures contract and pay the seller an amount that will be equal to the difference that it benefits from any rate that has been mentioned or committed in the futures contract. Similarly, if the interest rates fall the seller will compensate Larson Inc. at the expiration of the futures contract between the two parties. The foremost advantage is that for an American operation trading of futures in the Chicago Mercantile Exchange is easy. Since Larson Inc.
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Elements of the Communication Process Essay Companies need to develop strategies to improve brand image and brand awareness. The important aspect of spreading brand awareness and brand image is through communication. Companies need to establish a communication channel to win the new customers and retain existing customer. This communication is not restricted just to customer but also stakeholders in the value network. Communication is achieved through advertisement, sales promotion, public relation exercise, direct marketing and interactive marketing. Elements of Communication Process Communication process should not be one way traffic. Companies should look forward to developing communication network in which companies can reach customer but customer also can effectively communicate with companies. Technology has opened up many avenues to carry out effective communication. Companies have traditional tools like newspaper, television, radio, telephone, billboards and modern tools like the internet, emails and wireless devices. Technology has made the communication process not only faster but also reduced over all communication cost. There are nine elements, which make the communication process. The two parties are sender-company and receiver-customer. The communication tools are message and media used to communicate the process. The four major communication functions are encoding, decoding, response and feedback. The last element is the noise which is anytime of interference disrupting clarity of the message. Senders must encode the message as per the target audience and use the right media. The receiver decodes the message, responds to the message and sends feedback to the company. Experience senders are able to garner a more effective response from the right message. Companies have to put effort in developing an effective communication program. The development of the communication program can be charted into eight steps. 1.The first step is identifying the target audience. The target audiences are the existing customer or the potential new customers. Target audience identification is essential for further development and overall success of the communication program. Once the audience is identified the next part is assessing the present company or brand perception within the target audience. Based on the results from the audience analysis the message should address the requirements. 2.The second step is to set specific objectives for the given communication message. This objective could be to enhance existing image, convey attribute, or encourage a consumer to act. The objective can have a cognitive, affective or behavioral response. 3.The third step is the design of the message. The designing of the message follows the objective of the message. The design of the message has to address the following four points, content of message, message structure, message format and message source. 4.The fourth step is the selection of the communication channel. The channel must be appropriate to carry the message to the target audience. For pharmaceutical companies, their sales people are the most effective channel in reaching the target doctor audience, instead of placing billboards. 5.The fifth step is related with the financial estimates of the whole expenditure. Companies need to decide budget of sales promotional and other activities. The common methods followed are an affordable method, percentage of sales method, competitive parity method, and objective-task methods. 6.The sixth step is the decision relate to the communication mix. Companies have limited budget, so they need balance expenditure among advertising, sales promotion, public relation, sales force and direct marketing. The relevant choice of the communication mix is highly dependable on the industry the company is operating. 7.The seventh step measuring results of the communication process. It is very important for companies to keenly follow the outcomes of the communication process. The results could be increased in sales, change in attitude or image of the brand. 8.The eight step is managing the integrated marketing process. Companies cannot afford to continue one medium approach to achieve desired communication effect. Companies must integrate all the available tools as to reach a wider audience and effectively communicate about brand and products.
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Compare The Immigration Policies In Two Countries History Essay Australia and America during the White Australia Policy period 1901 1973; Comparisons, Consequences the Future When comparing and contrasting the factors that shaped the immigration policies of the United States and Australia during the White Australia period of 1901-1973 it is apparent that there are some strong similarities in the policies, particularly in the areas of politics and economics. There are also defining differences in the contributing cultural factors with regard to the types of nationalism and identity that emerged within the two countries. Whilst both countries were immigrant nations, Australia has held on to its British heritage, whereas the United States had become a world power in its own right even before the British Empire fell. The vast size of the United States population has also played an immense role in its place in the global world of leading nations. Although the two nations are similar in geographical size, by 1901 the population of the United States was twenty times that of Australia (Aust. Beaureau of Statistics 2002 U.S. Bureau of the Census 1999). The enormi ty of the US made it less concerned than Australia about fears of attack, or being swamped by immigrants (Freeman Jupp, 1992, Preface). These factors have all contributed in some way to the diversity in the ethnicity of immigrants who settled in the respective nations. Similarly the reasons behind why they chose one country over another, were allowed into one country over another, or in the case of Australia, were coerced into migrating to a foreign nation by means of free passage, must be considered. The similarities and differences in the immigration policies of these two countries will be discussed and compared throughout this research essay with the aim to focus on how these factors have contributed to current migrant populations and immigration polices within a global context. The initial immigration policies of both Australia and the United States shared many common factors and some differences. In the United States the San Francisco Gold Rush began during 1848. Many Mexicans and South Americans migrated to the region at this time to labor as miners. Initially the levels of Chinese migration as gold diggers was relatively low; it was not until 1852 that the numbers began to rise and by 1860 California had a total Chinese population of approximately 35,000 (Markus, 1979, pg.1). The levels of Chinese people arriving became so high that accommodation sources were completely depleted and tents were pitched on the streets. From an economic perspective, fears began to rise that the mines were going to be fully overtaken by these migrants and the US miners began to retaliate, The War upon the Chinese began (Markus 1979, pg.4). Daily expulsions began to take place with US miners demolishing Chinese tents and claims and mining codes were introduced that prevented Chinese from mining in certain districts. The Chinese were physically chased from claims and mining districts and murders were reported but rarely, if at all, were followed up by officials with no apprehension or punishment of offenders (Markus 1979, pg.6-7). Similarly, in Australia, the discovery of Gold near Bathurst in 1851 was the initial instigator for mass migration changes. Prior to this, migrants had been primarily convicts from Britain and Ireland. During the Gold Rush migrants began pouring into Australia from wide and varied backgrounds. Between 1851 and 1861 over 600,000 people migrated to Australia (Migration Heritage Website, 2001). Whilst the vast majority were still from Britain and Ireland, immigrant levels from countries such as Europe, China, the United States, New Zealand and the South Pacific began to rise (Migration Heritage Website, 2001). One of the largest migration groups were the Chinese, who with time, were seen by the Australian population as a financial threat to society, just as they were in the United States. In both cases the number of Chinese migrants grew whilst gold yields slumped. However, unlike America , this economic concern introduced a change in culture in Australia , with racial aggression toward s the Chinese due to their differences in appearance, customs and culture. In a nation looking towards maintaining its British white Australia policy these clashes were a major reason for the implementation of the Immigration Restriction Act at the time of Federation in 1901. Therefore, for both Australia and the US, Asian immigration caused the introduction of exclusionary policies. The White Australia Policy of 1901 effectively banned Asian immigration to Australia for the next fifty years (Migration Heritage Website, 2001). Similarly, in the US the Chinese Exclusion Act passed by President Chester Arthur in 1882 prevented immigration of the Chinese for ten years. This act was later extended for another ten years and became permanent in 1902 (Harvard University Library website, 2006). Interestingly, although the US did not make the Chinese Exclusion Act permanent until 1902, Australian legislators used this act as a model when developing the Immigration Act of 1901 (White Australia Policy), after considering the problems they saw occurring in the US during the Gold Rush years (Markus 1979, Intro pg.xiv). In Australia, unlike the US, the main complaints against the Chinese were initially economic but rapidly became cultural and political. The economic concerns began with claims predominately relating to the idea that Chinese were taking the gold that rightfully belonged to the homeland. Whilst Australia had initially tolerated early Chinese immigration under the hope that they would provide cheap labor, boosting the economic working population and opening the Northern parts of Australia to settlement (Markus 1979, pg. 20), this early tolerance did not take long to fade. Miners and the Australian general population began to take offense not only to the working habits of the Chinese, their so called clanning which gave them the advantage of working in large numbers and monopolising diggings, but also to their mannerisms, customs, religion and colour (Markus 1979, pg. 21). Although these factors also played a role in the US reaction to Chinese immigrants, it was not quite so significant in the racial sense, as it was in Australia. Hence, Australia put into place its White Australia Policy, specifically aimed at excluding Asians, and later, non-desirable Europeans, whilst the US initially aimed their immigration policies predominantly at culling the amount of migrants from anywhere to their country. The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1902 preceded the US immigration restriction acts of the 1920s, which eventuated in the National Origins Act of 1929, capping the overall immigration allowance to the US at 150,000 and completely prohibiting Asian immigration (Harvard University Library website, 2006). World War I brought another change to the US immigration policies which had repercussions for Australia. In Australia when the First World War broke out in 1914, migration almost ceased altogether. Migrants from some countries previously thought of as acceptable were now classified as enemy aliens (Migration Heritage Website, 2001). Germans, Austro-Hungarians, Bulgarians and Turkish immigrants faced internment in Australia or general restrictions on their daily lives. Altogether, about 7000 people were interned in camps in New Sout Wales. This happened again during the Second World War with Germans, Italians, Japanese, Hungarians and Jewish refugees being interned. No preference was given on the basis of refugee status or political sympathies to the Jewish migrants. (Migration Heritage Website, 2001). In comparison, United States immigration between 1901 1973 can be categorized into three eras; The New Immigration 1890 1930, The Depression War 1930 1965 and Third World Immigratio ns 1965 onwards (Judd Freeman, 1992, pg 9). During the New Immigration unprecedented amounts of immigrants landed on American shores. Most of these were young and predominantly male, providing laborers to work within the industrial uprising (Judd Freeman, 1992, pg 9). However, after the First World War the United States wanted to limit the amount of the no longer acceptable Europeans, particularly Southern Europeans, migrating to their nation. In turn this caused increasing numbers of young Greek and Italian men to pay their way instead to Australia (as just discussed). This knock on effect resulted in Australia implementing strict quota restrictions on these men (Judd Freeman, 1992, pg. 4). These migrants were escaping religious, racial, and political persecution, or seeking relief from a lack of economic opportunity or famine (Eyewitness to History website, 2000). We can see here the correlation between the two countries and the consequences that the United States immigration r estrictions had on Australian policy makers, encouraging them to adopt racially discriminative immigration legislation. In Australia, Post World War II and on into the 1950s and 60s Europeans continued to be granted immigration status, with the focus being greatly based on the populate or perish idea and assimilation into Australian society and culture. Immigrants were expected to shed their existing cultural identities, including their native languages, to promote their rapid absorption into the host population (DFAT website, nd). Although Australia in theory needed and encouraged these migrants in order to increase the population through means of government work placement agreements, the conditions they were subject to on arrival were quite appalling. Most migrants arrived by ship, from where they were immediately taken to hostels for migrants that had been set up in rural areas. The conditions were often very primitive, with men and woman separated into single sex barracks, shared bathrooms and communal kitchens and dining rooms serving unfamiliar foods. The situation was not welcoming and there wa s an expectation that a migrant would need only four to six weeks in one of these hostels before being prepared to settle near their new (enforced) workplace. It was not until 1969 that family units opened at the Villawood migration centre in New South Wales (Migration Heritage Website, 2001). On the contrary in the US things were very different. As they had no need to populate their already vastly inhabited nation, migration policy was largely prohibitive. From the 1930s right through until 1965 when the Immigration Nationality Amendments Act was passed, immigration was on the decline in the US. As a result of this, coupled with the fact that existing migrants were ageing, specific assimilation policies were not implemented. The emphasis was very much on Americanization and the melting pot theory without an actual government act required (Judd Freeman, 1992, pg.8). With the passing of the Immigration Amendments Act this all changed. The Third World immigration period began, bringing with it a new wave of immigrants, differing from those who had arrived before. The new law set an overall limit on immigration from the eastern hemisphere countries and capped, for the first time, entries from the west. Family reunification was emphasized and refugee law was introduced (Free man Jupp, 1992, pg.9). This Immigration Amendments Act reflected the civil rights movement taking place in the US, along with a movement toward the establishment of good foreign relations with an economically rising Asia. As this new wave of migrants was hitting America, Australia also began to experience significant changes. It was recognized that immigrants could not be forced to become the New Australians(Freeman Jupp, 1992, p.184) when there were obvious, governmentally imposed, employment and social segregations for these new arrivals. Migrants were living, as a result of these segregations, in isolation and relative poverty(Freeman Jupp, 1992, p.184). Children were failing at school, only basic low paid employment was available for people with poor English speaking skills, and the local Australians avoided contact with these people who were supposed to be assimilating into their society. Between 1965 and 1972 an Integration Branch was implemented into the Department of Immigration (Freeman Jupp, 1992, p.186) which was a means to assist migrants in as many aspects of their new Australian life as possible. It was a first attempt to make life easier for them, with English language schooling, wel fare services, workplace teachings, etc. By 1972 the government had recognised that the migrant population in Australia formed a large part of society that deserved to be recognized and have their needs met. In 1973 Gough Whitlam abolished the White Australia Policy completely. In a comparison of both Australian and American immigration history, it can be seen that whilst some issues were relatively similar or related, as noted above, that these two countries are actually very different in terms of migration. Many correlations can be drawn globally between the two nations, such as being English speaking, settler societies, or countries of immigrants, but the reasons behind their migration trends in most instances is completely different. Whilst Australias early, and most significant immigration population initially came from Britain, based on ethnic ties with the home country and Australias need for population, Americas first immigrants were volunteer migrants heading to a new land for a better life. The similarities in the policies that both nations have adopted over time, is that they have caused a type of cultural pluralism (Ucarer Puchala, 1997, pg.341). In theory this means that all racial, religious and cultural groups are tolerated within one societ y. On the surface of both countries this is true. Blacks and whites work together, there are interracial marriages, everyone can vote and society does usually operate in a suitable manner. It is the problems under the surface of a long history of underlying racial tension that need to be addressed. These racial tensions essentially exist, not because of the immigration policies alone, but of how they were implemented into society for both locals and migrants. Emigration throughout history results from people around the world searching for human security, whether it is economic, social, political or cultural, the search continues (Ucarer Puchala, 1997, pg.342). A possible global solution for nations, such as Australia and the United States, who are trying to control and contain the flow of migration, would be to consider the adverse conditions that people are looking to escape and implement foreign policy to begin to change and assist with these problems. Although these types of pol icies would take a great deal of time to implement, it seems worth considering as a plausible and humanitarian option rather than simply working to establish policies that are aimed at keeping prospective migrants out as per the existing legislation in both countries.
Friday, September 20, 2019
Ulysses S. Grant Ulysses S. Grant was an American general and 18th president of the United States. Grant was born in Point Pleasant, Ohio, on April 27, 1822, the son of Hannah Simpson and Jesse Grant, the owner of a tannery. Taken to nearby Georgetown at the age of one, he was educated in local and boarding schools. In 1839, under the name of Ulysses Simpson instead of his original Hiram Ulysses, he was appointed to West Point. Graduating 21st in a class of 39 in 1843, he was assigned to Jefferson Barracks, Missouri. There he met Julia Dent, a local planter's daughter, whom he married after the Mexican War. During the Mexican War, Grant served under both General Zachary Taylor and General Winfield Scott and distinguished himself, particularly at Molina del Rey and Chapultepec. After his return and tours of duty in the North, he was sent to the Far West. In 1854, while stationed at Fort Humboldt, California, Ã¢â¬Å"Grant resigned his commission because of loneliness and drinking problems, and in the following years he engaged in generally unsuccessful farming and business ventures in Missouri.Ã¢â¬ (Grant Moves South, 18) He moved to Galena, Illinois, in 1860, where he became a clerk in his father's leather store. At the outbreak of the American Civil War, Grant was appointed colonel, and soon afterward brigadier general, of the Illinois Volunteers, and in September 1861 he seized Paducah, Kentucky. After an indecisive raid on Belmont, Missouri, he gained fame when in February 1862, in conjunction with the navy; he succeeded in reducing Forts Henry and Donelson, Tennessee, forcing General Simon B. Buckner to accept unconditional surrender. The Confederates surprised Grant at Shiloh, but he held his ground and then moved on to Corinth. In 1863 he established his reputation as a strategist in the brilliant campaign against Vicksburg, Mississippi, which took place on July 4. After being appointed commander in the West, he defeated Braxton Bragg at Chattanooga. Grant's victories made him so prominent that he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant general and in February 1864 was given command of all Union armies. Grant's following campaigns revealed his determination to apply merciless pressure against the Confederacy by coordinating the Union armies and exploiting the economic strength of the North. While Grant accompanied the Army of the Potomac in its ov... ...n scheme to purchase Santo Domingo. Thereafter, however, Secretary of State Hamilton Fish established a distinguished record by settling outstanding difficulties with Great Britain with the Treaty of Washington in 1871, and keeping the country clear of the Cuban rebellion against Spain. After retiring from the presidency, Grant took a long trip around the world. Returning in 1879, he became an unsuccessful candidate for the presidential nomination, which went to James A. Garfield. In 1881 Grant moved to New York City, where he became a partner in the Wall Street firm of Grant and Ward; Ã¢â¬Å"he was close to ruin when the company collapsed in 1884.Ã¢â¬ (Ulysses S. Grant: A Politician, 45) To provide for his family, he wrote his memoirs while fighting cancer of the throat; he died at Mount Gregor, New York, on July 23, 1885. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã A military genius, Grant possessed the vision to see that modern warfare requires total application of military and economic strength and was thus able to lead the Union to victory. In civilian life, however, he was unable to provide the leadership necessary for a growing industrial nation, even though he always retained the affection of the American public. Ulysses S. Grant Essay -- essays research papers Ulysses S. Grant Ulysses S. Grant was an American general and 18th president of the United States. Grant was born in Point Pleasant, Ohio, on April 27, 1822, the son of Hannah Simpson and Jesse Grant, the owner of a tannery. Taken to nearby Georgetown at the age of one, he was educated in local and boarding schools. In 1839, under the name of Ulysses Simpson instead of his original Hiram Ulysses, he was appointed to West Point. Graduating 21st in a class of 39 in 1843, he was assigned to Jefferson Barracks, Missouri. There he met Julia Dent, a local planter's daughter, whom he married after the Mexican War. During the Mexican War, Grant served under both General Zachary Taylor and General Winfield Scott and distinguished himself, particularly at Molina del Rey and Chapultepec. After his return and tours of duty in the North, he was sent to the Far West. In 1854, while stationed at Fort Humboldt, California, Ã¢â¬Å"Grant resigned his commission because of loneliness and drinking problems, and in the following years he engaged in generally unsuccessful farming and business ventures in Missouri.Ã¢â¬ (Grant Moves South, 18) He moved to Galena, Illinois, in 1860, where he became a clerk in his father's leather store. At the outbreak of the American Civil War, Grant was appointed colonel, and soon afterward brigadier general, of the Illinois Volunteers, and in September 1861 he seized Paducah, Kentucky. After an indecisive raid on Belmont, Missouri, he gained fame when in February 1862, in conjunction with the navy; he succeeded in reducing Forts Henry and Donelson, Tennessee, forcing General Simon B. Buckner to accept unconditional surrender. The Confederates surprised Grant at Shiloh, but he held his ground and then moved on to Corinth. In 1863 he established his reputation as a strategist in the brilliant campaign against Vicksburg, Mississippi, which took place on July 4. After being appointed commander in the West, he defeated Braxton Bragg at Chattanooga. Grant's victories made him so prominent that he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant general and in February 1864 was given command of all Union armies. Grant's following campaigns revealed his determination to apply merciless pressure against the Confederacy by coordinating the Union armies and exploiting the economic strength of the North. While Grant accompanied the Army of the Potomac in its ov... ...n scheme to purchase Santo Domingo. Thereafter, however, Secretary of State Hamilton Fish established a distinguished record by settling outstanding difficulties with Great Britain with the Treaty of Washington in 1871, and keeping the country clear of the Cuban rebellion against Spain. After retiring from the presidency, Grant took a long trip around the world. Returning in 1879, he became an unsuccessful candidate for the presidential nomination, which went to James A. Garfield. In 1881 Grant moved to New York City, where he became a partner in the Wall Street firm of Grant and Ward; Ã¢â¬Å"he was close to ruin when the company collapsed in 1884.Ã¢â¬ (Ulysses S. Grant: A Politician, 45) To provide for his family, he wrote his memoirs while fighting cancer of the throat; he died at Mount Gregor, New York, on July 23, 1885. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã A military genius, Grant possessed the vision to see that modern warfare requires total application of military and economic strength and was thus able to lead the Union to victory. In civilian life, however, he was unable to provide the leadership necessary for a growing industrial nation, even though he always retained the affection of the American public.
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The total cost of the war in Iraq is now above 161 billion dollars and is still rising. That is an incredible amount of money that is being put forth to fight an ongoing war against insurgents in Iraq. This money could potentially be put toward finding a solution to some of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s more personal issues, such as the declining amount of government money in schools, the increasing number of people being diagnosed with AIDS, and the increasing poverty level. Putting money towards finding solutions to these issues would make America a better place to live. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Many schools are being closed down every year due to the lack of money being put into those schools. Some of the money spent on the war could be allocated for these schools in order to keep them open. For example, after the Board of Education announced that thirty-four public schools would close by next fall the executive vice-president, Virginia Cantrell, of the Detroit Federation of Teachers said, Ã¢â¬Å"We are in a crisisÃ¢â¬ (Rummel par 2). Cantrell said the loss of more than half of the cityÃ¢â¬â¢s population in the past thirty years and the growth of charter schools leaves fewer students in the public school system (Rummel par 2). In addition to keeping the schools open, the money would also help stop other problems such as the lack of teachers and poor teacher-student ratios. In November of 2000, students at Guy Benjamin Elementary School were sent home after the teachers who showed up left(McCracken par 1). The school closed at 11:30 when the principa l had only three staff members remaining to supervise more than 100 students (McCracken par 2). The teachers were striking because of inadequate pay. The Territorial Court Judge ended the three week strike by ordering the teachers to come back to work (McCracken par 3). The money used for the war could be allotted to pay teachers more money to keep the people who currently are teachers and as an incentive to get more people to become teachers. This would eliminate the problem of people not wanting to become teachers solely because teachers do not make enough money. Furthermore, the money could be used to buy needed supplies. Many schools do not have sufficient amounts of books or computers, if any, that are in good condition. The money could also be used to renovate old schools that are in bad condition. Stu... ... such as the budget and social security could benefit from money used for the war in Iraq. Devoting money to solving these problems would not only help solve these problems but would have an effect on AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s overall well being. The bottom line is that there is an enormous amount of money being used to fight this war and if the money was used more efficiently, it could not only be used for the war but also be used for the wars that Americans currently battle everyday at home. Works Cited Jeanie Lerche Davis. Ã¢â¬Å"CDC: HIV/AIDS Statistics Up in AmericaÃ¢â¬ . WebMDHealth. 28 July, 2003. WebMD. 14 April 2005. McCracken, David. Ã¢â¬Å"Benjamin School closes for lack of teachersÃ¢â¬ . World History Archives. 8 November 2000. Hartford Web Publishing. 14 April 2005. . Rummel John. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ËDevastatingÃ¢â¬â¢ school closings hit DetroitÃ¢â¬ . PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Weekly World. 14 April 2005. PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Weekly World Newspaper. 14 April 2005. . Siddiqi, Samana. Ã¢â¬Å"Statistics on poverty & food wastage in AmericaÃ¢â¬ . SoundVision.com. 26 April 2004. Islamic Information & Products. 14 April 2005. . Ã¢â¬Å"The War in Iraq CostsÃ¢â¬ . Cost of War. April, 2003. National Priorities Project. 14 April 2005. .
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
The Cask of Amontillado "I must not only punish, but punish with impunity. A wrong is unredressed when retribution overtakes its redresser. It is equally unredressed when the avenger fails to make himself felt as such to him who has done the wrong." With these ferverous words from the introductory paragraph of Edgar Allan Poe's Cask of Amontillado, the story of Montresor's revenge begins. Poe repeatedly stresses the need for revenge due to bitterness and resentment in Montresor's character towards Fortunato, but more importantly, stress is placed on revenge by which the victim realizes their injustice towards the redresser. Unfortunately, it seems that Montresor is denied this pure and encompassing revenge when his victim, Fortunato, during his last few minutes with Montresor, believes that his actions are a huge charade, and not the actions of a man scorned and seeking revenge. Although in burying Fortunato alive, Montresor is able to physically accomplish what he ultimately desired, he is left w ith an air of insatisfaction judging by his own definition of true and justified revenge. Poe shows the resentment Montresor feels towards Fortunato from the very first sentence of the story with, "The thousand injuries of Fortunato I had borne as best I could; but when he ventured upon insult, I vowed revenge." It is never specified what this injury was to Montresor, but it was so obviously so heinous that Fortunato was not to be spared. Later in the story, M...
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
Old English is a term to refer to the language and the literature spoken and written in Britain during the time between the coming of the Anglo-Saxons to Britain in the fifth century and the Norman Conquest in 1066. There are many tribes such as the Picts, Jutes, Scotes invaded Britain, this resulted in the mixing of several races, tongues and cultures. But the West Germanic tribes known as the Anglo-Saxon were the most influential tribes during this period. The Anglo-Saxons were warrior-farmers and came from north-western Europe. They began to invade Britain while the Romans were still in control. The Anglo-Saxons were tall, fair-haired men, armed with swords and spears and round shields. Their skills are hunting, farming, cloth production and leather working. Ã¢â¬Å"Anglo-Saxons were often buried with their possessions. The objects found in their graves have given evidence of the different jobs done by men and women and the skills they had. Knives and spears are often found in Anglo-Saxon menÃ¢â¬â¢s graves. This suggests they were involved in hunting, fighting and farming. WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s graves often include tools used for sewing and weaving, which suggests they were involved in making clothes (textile production. 1 The language of this whole period is known as Old English. No exact date exists for its beginning. The first written records of the language date from around 690, however people had spoken the language long before it. Most Old English words were Germanic. Ã¢â¬Å"Old English is a West Germanic language, developing out of Ingvaeonic (also known as North Sea Germanic) dialects from the 5th century. Anglo-Saxon literacy developed after Christianisation in the late 7th century. Ã¢â¬ 2 At the end of the sixth century, the Anglo-Saxons accepted Christianity after Pope Gregory sent Saint Augustine to Britain in 597. The Romans had introduced Christianity to the Celts centuries earlier. ) This gave rise to some religious writings. The Christian poetry adapts and paraphrases the biblical narrative, such as the life of saints and using verse to create standard morale. In addition to Christian poem, heroic poem also takes part in the Old English period. The heroic poems deal mostly with Germanic history and legend. Ã¢â¬Å"The stories they tell or mention, the kings and warriors they refer to, were all known by Germanic people. Ã¢â¬ 3 Discussion One of the heroic Old English poems is Beowulf.Ã The poem has survived complete, but it has little information about the author and the date of its composition. The author is unknown and no certain date of its composition. There are also other problems which makes analysis against this poem becomes hampered. Ã¢â¬Å"The text is historically remote from us; it involves ideas that seem to bear little resemblance to our own ways of thinking; It is written in a form of English (also called Anglo-Saxon) that displays little similarity to English today. Ã¢â¬ 4 The first part of the story takes place in Denmark.Ã King Hrothgar is being pestered by a water monster, Grendel, who is killing his men within a hall named Heorot. Beowulf comes to aid him and kills Grendel and later, at the bottom of the lake, also he kills GrendelÃ¢â¬â¢s mother, who comes to avenge her son. The second part is set in southern Sweden about fifty years later. Beowulf himself is a king and has to fight a fire breathing dragon which burns the royal hall. He gets help from a young warrior, Wyglaf, who manages to kill the Dragon. Beowulf is seriously injured from the fight with the fire breathing dragon. He then announces Wyglaf as his successor. The poem ends with BeowulfÃ¢â¬â¢s funeral rites and a lament The main character of this poem is Beowulf, a warrior from Geats who manages to kill the monster, Grendel. He is depicted as a brave man who thirsty with pride and glory. He is a good and generous leader for his soldiers and also ideal lord. Supporting character of the poem is Hrothgar, an aging lord from Danes whose kingdom ravaged by a monster, he then adopts his savior, Beowulf as son. Grendel is a dreadful monster who every night visits Heorot and kills HrotgharÃ¢â¬â¢s men. Wiglaf is a brave young warrior who aids Beowulf to kill fire breathing monster that burnt BeowulfÃ¢â¬â¢s Hall. Wiglaf then becomes Beowulf successor. Structurally, Beowulf is built around three fights. The first fight is fight between those who life in Royal Hall and the monster. The Royal hall is a symbol of community itself. Monster which ravages the hall means a problem threatens the security and social bound of community. The fight between king and monster, the king who is representative of the society or in other words someone who is in power, has to face unpredictable and incomprehensible forces which threaten his position. This is kind of what every leader whether in Old English era or in 21st century must face. The last fight is also universal fight of human being, fighting of young age and life with old and death. No matter how great a man accomplishing many achievement, glory and pride or successfully beating problem in his life, he never wins against old and death. The theme of this poem concerns with the values of Germanic tribal society. The work talks about a hero and the values of bravery and also generosity. There are many contrasts depicted in this poem, for example, water and fire, youth and old age, life and death, rise and fall of nations, faithfulness and betrayal, heroism and cowardice, hope and resignation, good and evil, as well as the past, present and future. Every literary works has relation with the society where the work is written, so does this heroic poem. Anglo-Saxon people are well known as very loyal to their lord. The same sense is also found in this poem. How heroic BeowulfÃ¢â¬â¢s men obey their leaderÃ¢â¬â¢s command by staying within the hall, fighting unpredictable force which possibly kills them. The kinship among Anglo-Saxon people is still though. This statement can also be found in the poem. Beowulf comes to Danes and helps Hrotghar who in the past has been a close friend to BeowulfÃ¢â¬â¢s father. Despite, the character of Beowulf himself who wants pride and glory, he comes to Danes to help his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s old friend and Hrotghar adopts him as his son due to BeowulfÃ¢â¬â¢s help. Regarding Axlo-Saxon men are brave and keen on fighting, the genre of the poem is heroic poem and not far from war or fighting theme. The poems reflect also another side of life in the Heroic Age Ã¢â¬â the frequency of feuds. Beowulf has many references to bitter tribal fights. The feud of Hrotghar the Dane and Ingeld the Heathobard is settled by Hrotghar giving Freawaru his daughter inmarriage to Ingeld, but Beowulf tells Hyglac how the feud will break out again. 5 One thing which is interesting about Heroic Age is the religion. Beowulf was written when Britain was already Christianised, but the Pagan cult was still strong in the society. As a result, fusion between Pagan and Christianity became unique factor which affects the society and the poem. Both Pagan and Christianity can be found in the poem. For example, at the BeowulfÃ¢â¬â¢s funeral, his body was cremated. Cremation is a form of Pagan ritual. Also, in the poem, Christianity value can be found, like at the line 180 until 182. They remembered Hell. The Almighty Judge 180 Of good deeds and bad, the Lord God, Head of the Heavens and High King of the World, The concept of Hell and Heaven is close to Christian doctrine. From this example, the fushion of Pagan and Christianity in the society also effects the poem.
Monday, September 16, 2019
1 Chapter FOUR ANALYSIS, FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS 4.1 Introduction This chapter will be discuss and explains about the analysis and findings which from two mention surveies every bit good as the literature reappraisal through comparative analysis. The facets that will be used to compare are site background, end and design attack, design layout, comfortss, hardscape and softscape choice, handiness and circulation every bit good as the activities. Those aspect are considered the dependable from literature reappraisal to be portion of urban park design planning. This chapter will stop up with treatment of analysis between both park which are Rosemary Hills-Lyttonsville Local Park every bit good as The North Lynnwood Park 4.2. Site Background Both of Rosemary Hills-Lyttonsville Local Park and The North Lynnwood Neighbourhood Park are different type of park but those park are similar in using Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design ( CPTED ) rules which seeks to hold a nothing offense in the park. Table 4.1 shows the comparing of basic background for both Parkss. Table 4.1 Comparison of site background for both Parkss.Rosemary Hills-Lyttonsville Local ParkThe North Lynnwood Neighbourhood ParkEntire country: 17 estates.Built by Maryland-National Capital Park and Planning Commission ( M-NCPPC ) Parks in 1962.Include community centre, features resort areas, a softball field, two multiuse Fieldss, four tennis tribunals, a football or association football field and a picnic country.Entire country: 6 estates.Developed in 1970 and initiated by Lynnwood Elementary School instructors, every bit good as the pupils.Include big active drama, picnic country, an out-of-door public presentation infinite, spray Parkss and new drama equipment known as Ã¢â¬Å"Dragon ParkÃ¢â¬ .Based on the tabular array above, both Parkss attract public because itÃ¢â¬â¢s operation as a topographic point for socialize every bit good as there are besides provided several diversion installations for recreational activities. The Rosemary Hills-Lyttonsville Local Park consist of several installations within the park which may be used by batch of people in one clip. As compared to the Nort h Lynnwood Neighbourhood Park, it is besides consist of installations as usual for a park, but the figure of user may be somewhat different. 4.3 Goal and design attack Goal and design attack is of import and considered in design planning because of peculiar Parkss must lies on that facet. These facet is based on how the end will be achieved through the selected attack in developing a good park. From both mention surveies, it seem that both park have their ain end but used the same attack which is CPTED to accomplish a good park. For Rosemary Hills-Lyttonsville Local Park, it want to make a successful park every bit good as the unfastened infinite system in the hereafter through the devising of bing Parkss and unfastened infinites as utile and attractive as possible and besides making the right every bit good as suitable of new comfortss and linkages within the park. The North Lynnwood Neighbourhood Park besides have about the same purpose which is to supply appropriate new diversion installations every bit good as redevelop the bing 1s and make a new out-of-door public presentation infinite for Lynnwood Elementary School pupils and occupants. But, both Parkss have to accomplish the purpose through several aims that might be different. Table 4.2 The difference aims used by both Parkss to accomplish the end.Rosemary Hills-Lyttonsville Local ParkThe North Lynnwood Neighbourhood ParkI. Supply more visibleness to other installations in the park such as the resort area, hoops and others. two. Better a better entree control in covering with vehicular and prosaic traffic. three. Supply better natural surveillance for those who entered the park.I. Supply installations for diversion activities based on the user needs. two. Develop recreational resources and chances that are built-in in the landscape and outdoor atmosphere that may include walking, jogging, biking every bit good as continuing the natural countries.Harmonizing to the comparing of two mention surveies, both park are taking about the same end but different manner to accomplish it but still based on CPTED rules. The Rosemary Hills-Lyttonsville Local Park is indirectly giving a comfy and secured atmosphere for the users as to allow the relaxation for better natural surveillance and supply more visibleness to other installations. Compared to The North Lynnwood Neighbourhood Park had intended to repair up the installations with the new one within the park to make better atmosphere as the park is used by the school kids every bit good as the occupants which to maintain out fright of offenses. 4.4 Design Layout A good park design is due to the planning of a good layout puting which is the right and suited combination of workss every bit good as the characteristics will make a pleasing visual aspect and an environmentally friendly layout which mean a safer park. Through the two mention surveies, the design layout was compared to find the design which sing the offense bar schemes. Table 4.3 The difference design layout of two mention surveies.Rosemary Hills-Lyttonsville Local ParkThe North Lynnwood Neighbourhood ParkRosemary Hills-Lyttonsville Local Park was networking within the park linked to each other of the pathway and the cycleway every bit good as the planting strategy. These are the possibility to make hiding infinite within the full layout of the park.The Gwendolyn Coffield Community Center becomes a focal point of the park since the installations provided are around the centre.The installations that are provided is designated to be at the border of the park margin to guarantee the natural surveillance within the park.The North Lynnwood Neighbourhood Park is designed by positioning the looping pathway at the center of the park to be the focal point. The prosaic paseo was created to buffer by trees and other plantings.The design of the park every bit good as the external layout supplying more inclusion of corners that can hide people by twenty-four hours or dark.The planting strategy gives the obstructor of publicÃ¢â¬â¢s position as the st ructural planting is planted at the margin of the park every bit good as to deny entree to offense marks and to make a perceptual experience of hazards to wrongdoers.Based on the tabular array above, the circulation and pathway every bit good as the cycleway is appropriate to the design counsel for both Parkss as a good park design. These is designed to let walking within the park every bit good as such a desire lines for the users. Planting strategy besides played the same function of circulation, pathway and cycleway due to the CPTED rules which is the natural entree control. Apart from that, both park have their ain focal point which is a topographic point that people will garner or play around. For Rosemary Hills-Lyttonsville Local Park, the community centre shown in Figure 3.6 act as a focal point of the park because the installations provided are around the centre which is to guarantee the natural surveillance within the park. While focal point for the North Lynnwood Neighbourhood Park is the looping pathway because of its place which is at the center of the park. The focal point is one of the facet for a good park design that act as natural surveillance. 4.5 Comfortss, hardscape and softscape choice Comfortss and hardscape choice of urban park is sensible to be compared with looking at the offense bar facet as these provided in those park is influence to make societal interaction among the users. For softscape choice every bit good as landscaping played function to heighten the natural agreeableness in the park. It is of import, nevertheless, to guarantee that heavy leaf and inappropriate planting does non take to chances for privacy and possible offense. Table 4.4 Comparison of comfortss, hardscape choice for both Parkss.Rosemary Hills-Lyttonsville Local ParkThe North Lynnwood Neighbourhood ParkA big unfastened space/ resort areaA multi-use football and association football fieldA baseball fieldTwo tennis tribunalsOne and a half hoops tribunalsCommunity centreSecurity illuming within the parkSpray parkReservable field day installationsLarge active drama countriesPlay EquipmentBasketball CourtOutdoor Stages/Performance AreaPublic toiletsParkingBased on the tabular array 4.4, the comfortss every bit good as the hardscape provided in Rosemary Hills-Lyttonsville Local Park are accessible in footings of security facet as the characteristics is accommodating security component as the comfortss and the infinite provided can make a societal atmosphere. Harmonizing to Cranz ( 1982 ) , people will utilize the park for their sociable infinite where people get to utilize ephemeral scene, run into friends do other recreational activities. Compared to The North Lynnwood Neighbourhood Park, the park provided good comfortss, but the hardscape characteristics of the park is rather unequal to back up the safety environment. Table 4.5 Comparison of softscape choice for both Parkss.Rosemary Hills-Lyttonsville Local ParkThe North Lynnwood Neighbourhood ParkThe park encompasses about 70 % of plantings. This is possible to do a fly-by-night country every bit good as to supply screen for related and suited activities.The planting choice need to suit the local ecology and recreational context.The workss choice is making a form which is covering at the border of the park.The usage of workss are to give and supply the coloring material every bit good as the texture of planting.Based on the tabular array 4.5, softscape choice is an of import component in a park which itÃ¢â¬â¢s played different function due to the local surrounding. This is because each seting strategy will be reflecting the image of the park. 4.6 Accessibility and circulation Accessibility and circulation aspect played function in developing a good and better park. The design fundamentally to heighten the existent and perceived safety of paseo users, by avoiding from taking people into unsafe state of affairss or countries. Table 4.6 Comparison of the handiness and circulation of both Parkss.Rosemary Hills-Lyttonsville Local ParkThe North Lynnwood Neighbourhood ParkThe handiness or street layout provided to take the motion of the users within the park is clearly where it is connects to the whole country.The form of parkÃ¢â¬â¢s handiness or street layout is more to make the natural way scene and the circulation of the way design is excessively loopy.Based on table 4.6, both Parkss seem to give and allow the users enjoy the different atmosphere of the park through different form of handiness every bit good as circulation. Unfortunately, both circulation design is beliing to the design counsel of park. . The design of pathway should be more in the direct desire lines because the direct entree will allow in making more concealed topographic points ( Qolcuhoun, 2004 ) . 4.7 Activity Basically, each park will supply public societal infinite, lawn country every bit good as recreational installations as a topographic point that signifiers and creates activity for the societal and environmental wellness of communities. These will indirectly give some basic counsel for offense decrease within the park ( Singapore National Prevention Council, 2003 ) . Table 4.7 Activities of both Parkss.Rosemary Hills-Lyttonsville Local ParkThe North Lynnwood Neighbourhood ParkRosemary Hills-Lyttonsville Local Park supplying a batch of infinite for activities that may include athleticss, fittingness, dance, music, art, or the chance to fall in together with friends and neighbors for a particular jubilation or societal assemblage which to guarantee the park is full used.The North Lynnwood Neighbourhood Park supplying out-of-door public presentations infinite which include two phases, amphitheater seating and a big mounting bowlder for the intent of making other activities to do the park more energetic.Based on the tabular array above, both Parkss somewhat supplying the same activities which to maintain and guarantee the Parkss utile to the users every bit good as the occupants. Through the development of unfastened infinite programs which to heighten ocular agreeableness of an country do non hold the possible to endanger the safety of the users ( Christiansen, 1977 ) . So, the more ocular comfortss are provided within the park, there more activities will be occurred. 4.8 Drumhead From the comparative analysis made between Rosemary Hills-Lyttonsville Local Park and The North Lynnwood Neighbourhood Park, it can be concluded that the chief consideration of forestalling offense in urban park are site background, end and design attack, design layout, comfortss, hardscape and softscape choice, handiness and circulation every bit good as the activities aspect. These should go the design guidelines during the spacial design in developing successful urban park based on CPTED rules. Both Parkss shown a good attacks in using the CPTED rules through those aspect. Hence, the design guidelines for urban park should see the strengths from both Parkss order to make a zero offense environment every bit good as a comfy and safer atmosphere within the park. MentionsMcCormick, J. ( 2006 ) .Design Against Crime. National Recreation and Park AssociationDrakakis, S. and David, W. ( 1981 ) .Urbanization, Housing and the Development Procedure. London: Croom Helm.Jamil bin Abu Bakar ( 2002 ) .A Design Guide for Public Parks in Malaysia. Johor Darul TaÃ¢â¬â¢zim: Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.Singapore National Crime Prevention Council ( 2003 ) .Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design Guidebook. Singapore: Singapore Public Affairs Department.
Sunday, September 15, 2019
Ã¢â¬Å"Discriminating in favour of members in one sex; assuming a person's abilities and social function are predetermined by his or her sex.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â Definition of sexism taken from the Oxford English Dictionary. Sexism today is everywhere. Our society is extremely sexist. Ã¢â¬Å"1, an organized community; a system of living in this. 2; people of the higher social classes. 3; company, companionship. 4; a group organized for a common purpose.Ã¢â¬ (also taken from the Oxford English Dictionary), the definition of society, meaning simply states the society as it would be as if it is ideal, but it is far from it if we looked at it from a gender researchers point of view. Times are changing; our society is not as stereotypical as it has been in the past. There have been many changes in society to reduce sexism. In 1918 women finally won the right to vote after fifty-two years of campaigning. In the end women had to resort to methods of violence just to fight for the same rights as men. Ã¢â¬Å"In Victorian times writers (mostly men) were fascinated by the idea of an ideal woman. She was a very desirable creature innocent but sensual, passive but alert, and always obedient to men. Her aim in life was to be a patient and attentive wife, a loving and affectionate mother. Family was everything to her.Ã¢â¬ (taken from Hodder English 4, Victorian Women.) This shows us just how narrow minded the society was back in Victorian times. Also women's achievements in history are not publicised as much as men's if atall; they are now, but not as much as they should do In the English language there are lots of sexist words, for example the word Ã¢â¬Ëhistory'. This word Ã¢â¬Ëhistory' implies that all of the past is to do with men and not women. Ã¢â¬ËHuman' is also a sexist word and so is Ã¢â¬Ëwoman', both of those words contain Ã¢â¬Ëman'. Here is a list of some sexist words in the English language: Ã¢â¬Ëhuman', Ã¢â¬Ëhistory', Ã¢â¬Ëwoman', Ã¢â¬Ëmankind', Ã¢â¬ËWalkman'. As we can see the English language is very Ã¢â¬Ëman' dominated. When people talk of God, Ã¢â¬ËHe' is wrote about and not Ã¢â¬ËShe' or Ã¢â¬ËIt'. Ã¢â¬ËHe' is always referred to as a male. The Bible itself is sexist, Ã¢â¬Å"And God said, let us make MANÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ . With women appearing as Ã¢â¬Å"an helpmeetÃ¢â¬ . All the sexism in language which is used to offend the same sex is of an opposing sex nature. For example men call other men Ã¢â¬Ëgirls' if they are not as capable as they are in something, for example sports. There is a video about sexism and at the beginning of it the words Ã¢â¬Ëgirls don't swear' came up in big bold lettering, which is clearly not true, society thinks females cannot be as grotesque as men but obviously they can. It seems to be acceptable for men to swear but if a women does it, she is sinned upon. On television programs which have swearing contained in them, mostly all of it is scripted to the males, and the women do not have hardly any swearing scripted to them. It also seems that women are not treated with as much respect as men are. If a woman is blonde they are thought to be Ã¢â¬Ëdumb', whereas a blonde man would not even be thought to be Ã¢â¬Ëdumb'. In the past women were not even entitled to the right to a free education, this changed in the middle of the nineteenth century, but black women were not entitled to a free education until the middle of the twentieth century. This shows us that women did not have as much respect as men and that still carries on today, but not as severely. Women are thought to stay at home and cook while the husband is at work. This is changing now partly because there is a considerable amount of male chefs on television. Young girls are thought to be very delicate, and are described as food, whereas young boys are thought to be rough and dirty and are described as animals: Girls Ã¢â¬Å"Sugar and spice and all things nice, thats what little girls are made of!Ã¢â¬ Boys Ã¢â¬Å"Slugs and snails and puppy dog's tails, that's what little boys are made of!Ã¢â¬ Clearly whoever wrote these little sayings had a very narrow mind, and the time in society in which these were wrote was very narrow-minded. When women are described as food they are described as sweet foods such as; crumpets and honey. When women are described as animals they are described as animals which are thought as to be ugly and medalling: cow, minx, dog. Men are never described as food, but they are described as animals which are thought to be dirty and slimy: slugs, snails. Men are very rarely described as sexuality but women are quite commonly. Some of the words which describe women as sexuality are: Ã¢â¬Ëtramp', Ã¢â¬Ëdyke', Ã¢â¬Ëlesbian', Ã¢â¬Ëslag', Ã¢â¬Ëtit', Ã¢â¬Ëslut', Ã¢â¬Ëwhore', Ã¢â¬Ëhooker'. There are no words that describe men as sexuality, but it offends men to be called a Ã¢â¬Ëwoman'. This implies that women are thought to be considerably weaker than men. Even middle-aged men call each other Ã¢â¬Ëlittle girls' if they are not as strong as another, for example. You cannot call a man the same names as a woman can be called e.g. Ã¢â¬Ëslag' which is very sexist. Men brag, gender is about power. Many people think when baby boys play with cars and when baby girls play with dolls it is nature. It could be nature but most things which are input into babies are from their parents, so it is most likely to be nurture. Also with babies it is expected that boys where blue and girls wear pink, if a boy wears pink people automatically think it is a girl and visa versa, it just shows how predigest our society is. The same applies for older males and females. Girls can wear trousers but boys cannot wear skirts, that is extremely sexist. Children's books mainly aim themselves at the different genders simply by their titles. Ã¢â¬ËMs Muffet' is Ã¢â¬Å"supposedÃ¢â¬ to be for girls, and Ã¢â¬ËFireman Sam' is Ã¢â¬Å"supposedÃ¢â¬ to be for boys. The media is extremely sexist, first of all starting with newspapers. At the beginning of every issue of Ã¢â¬Å"The SunÃ¢â¬ , there is a half naked woman. Never a man, always a woman. Also the whole newspaper is aimed at men, the newspaper concentrates on women, and male dominated sport. Women's sport is never publicised on television, radio or in the newspaper. This could be because, it does not have an interest in people's lives. Newspaper articles are sexist in many ways, and in mostly all the newspapers which are sold. An article in Ã¢â¬ËThe Daily Mail' publicised on Thursday, February, 24th, 2000, was about women making men redundant i.e. women working instead of staying at home doing housework. The article also comments on how men are taking women's roles', Ã¢â¬Å"Everywhere we look these days, we see the complete feminisation of men.Ã¢â¬ The Ã¢â¬ËDaily Star' newspaper is also aimed at men. It has countless pictures of women (clothed and un-clothed), male dominated sports and adverts for men's magazines. In one particular issue, (Saturday, September, 28, 2002), there was an article supposed to be about a golfer, but was mostly about his girlfriend, Ã¢â¬Å"Tiger Woods' gorgeous girlfriend Ellin Nordegren.Ã¢â¬ Another article in Ã¢â¬ËThe Evening Echo' publicised Wednesday, February, 2nd, 2002, was about a woman who worked in a post office who had to battle just for the right to wear trousers, Ã¢â¬Å"they can wear trousers and will not now be facing a disciplinary hearing.Ã¢â¬ This quote shows just how sexist our society is, women having to battle just to wear trousers. On television there are mostly male newsreaders though sometimes on the odd occasion there might be a man and a woman reading it together. The news on television, again only reports on male dominated sports with a female presenter, which shows who the sports are aimed at. I think our society is extremely sexist, but it is getting better, we have moved on very far since the Victorian times. But some people live their lives in the past and are a lot more sexist than others.
Saturday, September 14, 2019
Determination of Reaction Rate Law from the Reaction of Crystal Violet with Sodium Hydroxide ______________________________________________ Abstract: This experiment helps determine the rate of reaction of crystal violet while it reacts with sodium hydroxide with respect to crystal violet. The amount of sodium hydroxide is varied in this experiment while crystal violet is kept at a constant. The transmittance of crystal violet is observed and recorded using a colorimeter and the data obtained is used to plot graphs which are manipulated using LoggerPro software to produce the desired outcome; rate of reaction of crystal violet.Upon completion of the experiment it was seen that the rate of reaction of crystal violet turned out to be 1 which meant the reaction was first order with respect to crystal violet. This was deduced upon plotting the graph of ln Absorbance versus time of crystal violet and by drawing the line of best fit, which showed that the slope graph was 1 which is the rat e of reaction. This whole experiment was based upon the equation: Rate= k [CV+] [OH-], where k stands for the rate constant.Introduction: Kinetics, which is the study of how fast a reaction takes place or in other words the rate of a reaction, is the main ideology in this experiment. Reaction rates can be measured in a number of ways: by monitoring the amount of product formed, by measuring the loss in mass of reactants, for reactions involving gaseous products measuring the volume of gas produced, by electrolytic conductivity, pH measurement or for colored reactants or products measuring the transmittance by the use of a colorimeter.In this experiment the last method of measurement is used which is colorimetry. Colorimetry is a method of determining the kinetics of a reaction using a spectrometer which observes the amount of light that is absorbed or transmitted through a colored solution. As a reaction proceeds, the reactants either fades away or the product forms the color. By mo nitoring these changes the amount of product formed or reactant used up with respect to time can be monitored. The amount of light that is absorbed by a colored substance can be measured by calculating percentage absorbance or transmittance.A very helpful device known as colorimeter which is present in almost all equipped labs makes this quite simple to deduce. The machine displays the amount of light that passes through or absorbed by the substance. This instrument is based on the optics law or more commonly known as Beer-Lambert law, which is used in measuring the concentration of a solute in contrast to its absorbance. The colorimeter measures the wavelengths of different solutions as they vary. Distilled water is used as a reference in this experiment as it contains no colored elements and has a value of zero when inserted into the colorimeter.Crystal violet, a purple dye commonly used in inks or printers is reacted with sodium hydroxide, commonly known as caustic soda which is a powerful base. Sodium hydroxide is a colorless solution which when reacted with crystal violet causes it to lose its purple color and form a colorless product. The purpose of this experiment is to determine the order of the reaction with respect to crystal violet by using colorimetry. The amount of crystal violet is kept at a constant during the whole experiment while various amounts of sodium hydroxide, each of varying concentration are used.This method of determining rates is called the isolation method. Amount of reactant used with respect to time or the rate of reaction can be determined by plotting a graph of concentration versus time for the reactant if the reaction is first order. The slope is a measure of how much reactant is used per unit of time. As the concentration of reactant reduces in a chemical reaction, the slope is a negative value, hence by considering the absolute value of the slope, the rate of reaction of that reactant can be found for the reaction.If the rea ction was to be of second order, a graph of ln of concentration versus time would produce the rate of reaction by determining the slope like before. It must be noted that only the absolute value of the slope matters in this situation. Third order reactions have somewhat a similar story except they require a plot of 1/concentration versus time to determine rate of reaction. When all three graphs are plotted, the graph with the line of best fit, or the one in which all point seem to be on a straight line is the correct one for the reaction. This is easily drawn using the LoggerPro software.When all three graphs are drawn, the graph with the best fit line and lowest root mean square error, or the lowest deviation from the best fit line, is the graph to be used to determine reaction kinematics. This knowledge is acquired from the equations of the integrated rate laws which are explained in the textbook. The solutions are mixed in small amounts in cuvettes and inserted into the colorimet er, which reads the percentage transmittance during the time period. The colorimeter has an enclosed space for the cuvette to be inserted making sure light from other sources does not interfere with the reaction, hence providing accurate results.The rate of the reaction is determined by using the equation: Rate= k [CV+] [OH-], where k is the rate constant for the reaction. Materials: Solutions of crystal violet and sodium hydroxide were available in the laboratory which were previously prepared of concentrations 2. 00 E-5 and 2. 00 E-2 respectively. Deionized water was used in calibration while cuvettes were used to transfer substances into the colorimeter. Magnetic stirrers along with stir bars were used in mixing the reagents together which were transferred to the beaker via pipettes to ensure accurate results were produced.Methods: Three solutions were made to be put into the cuvttes. The first of them contained 20ml of crystal violet and 20ml of sodium hydroxide. The second had 20ml crystal violet along with 10ml of distilled water and 10ml of sodium hydroxide. The third solution contained 20ml crystal violet with 15ml distilled water and 5ml sodium hydroxide. The reagents were mixed well in beakers, each containing the different solutions and were stirred sufficiently on a magnetic stir plate. The colorimeter was calibrated with distilled water which set a reference value of zero making sure that all succeeding readings would be accurate.A small sample of the first solution was placed in a cuvette which was inserted into the colorimeter. Data collection started immediately and was recorded for 15 min, the whole duration of the cuvette in the colorimeter. The different values of transmittance were recorded and the data was plotted into a graph with the help of LoggerPro software. The same procedure was repeated for the second and third solution and thereby obtaining three different Absorbance versus time graphs for each. Care was taken at every step of thi s experiment to ensure that errors were minimized to the fullest.The colorimeter was calibrated every time before placing a new cuvette into it to make sure results were accurate. The dye was handled with care as it leaves stain marks on any surface it is spilled on. Goggles were worn throughout the experiment to keep the eyes from risk of exposure. Safety gloves were worn to handle all reagents as one of them, sodium hydroxide, is a strong base and has significant corrosive properties. The graphs obtained from the three solutions were then manipulated using the LoggerPro software which enables he application of various calculus functions to produce different graphs, all of which lead to determination of the order of the reaction. A line of best fit was applied to all three graphs and the slopes (m), absorbance value at 7min (a) and the root mean square error (RMSE) were recorded. The first graph was reopened and a new column of ln Absorbance was made, using this data, another plot of ln Absorbance versus time was created using LoggerPro. This was done again for the second and third solutions.The graph of Absorbance versus time for the first solution was opened again to produce a graph of 1/Absorbance versus time which was saved. All of these were made possible using LoggerPro. All of the graphs produced had a line of best fit through them which made it easy to determine slope and RMSE values for each of them along with absorbance values at 7 minutes, which is the half life of the reaction period or half the time for the data to be collected. All of the data collected from the graphs were tabulated and values were used in determining the reaction rate of the reaction.Results: Figure 1: Graph slowing relationship of Absorbance versus time for first solution Figure 2: Relationship of ln Absorbance versus time for first solution Figure 3: Plot of 1/Absorbance versus time for first solution Figure 4: ln Absorbance versus time plot for solution 2 Solution| Order(p) | ? RMSE? | 1| 0| 0. 01641| 1| 1| 0. 01129| 1| 2| 0. 3810| Table 1: RMSE values for the three graphs for solution 1 Solution| Order (p)| [OH-]0/M| Kps= -Slope(m)*| 1| 1| 10. E-3| 0. 09287| 2| 1| 5. 0E-3| 0. 1238| 3| 1| 2. 5E-3| 0. 01038| *(m= slope from plot of ln Absorbance versus time)Table 2: Slopes of the different ln Absorbance versus time for three graphs Figure 5: Plot of kps (slope) versus [OH-]0 Figure 6: Graph of ln kps versus ln [OH-]0 Solution| Order(p)| Slope (m)| Value at 7 min (a)| RMSE| ? RMSE/a? | 1| 0| -0. 02360| 0. 271| 0. 01641| 0. 0605| 1| 1| -0. 09287| 0. 271| 0. 01129| 0. 0416| 1| 2| 0. 40210| 0. 271| 0. 3810| 1. 405| 1| 1| -0. 09287| 0. 271| 0. 01129| 0. 0416| 2| 1| -0. 12380| 0. 134| 0. 01566| 0. 1169| 3| 1| -0. 010380| 0. 492| 0. 00693| 0. 0141| Table 3: Data obtained from all the graphs plottedIt was observed during the reaction that the color changed from purple to colorless at the end when taken out of the cuvette. Discussion: Table 1 shows the absolute (RMSE /a) values for the first solution. The RMSE values are obtained from the graphs produced from solution 1(graphs 1, 2 and 3). The graph with the least absolute RMSE/a value is the one with the best fit line with the greatest accuracy; hence the graph 2 or the plot of ln Absorbance versus time for solution 1 is the most accurate one as it has an absolute RMSE/a value of 0. 129. Thus it can be deduced from the table that the reaction is first order with respect to crystal violet. Since it is now known that the reaction is first order with respect to crystal violet, the functional relationship for p=1 is: ln Absorbance= [ln Absorbance]0- kpst; This equation is familiar since it is one of the integrated rate law equations as seen previously. First order reactions are determined if the plot of ln Absorbance versus time have a line of best fit which is accurate.Thus the equation above shows that the best fit line from the plot would equal to Ã¢â¬âkps. Therefore the kps values woul d be equal to negative of the slopes of ln Absorbance versus time graphs for all three solutions which is depicted in Table 2. To determine the order of reaction with respect to [OH-] some more calculations are required and more graphs are required to be plotted. The kps values obtained from Table 2 along with the [OH-]0 values aid in the plotting of another kps versus [OH-]0 graph. The graph that is obtained is shown in Figure 5.To double check the accuracy of the graph, a second graph of ln kps versus ln [OH-]0 is plotted which would be the graph if the reaction was to be of order 1 with respect to [OH-] which is depicted in Figure 6. When the two graphs are compared to each other and their slopes and RMSE values compared from the data collected in Table 3, it is seen that the reaction is actually in fact order 1. 5 which when rounded off to the nearest integer would be equal to 1. q= slope of plot of ln kps versus ln [OH-]0= 1. 581 as seen from Figure 6.The RMSE value is also a v ery low value which means that this value would be very accurate and hence the reaction would be first order with respect to sodium hydroxide. The discrepancy in the final value of q can be accounted for by transfer losses, when the reagents were being transferred from the pipette to the beaker; some of it remains in the pipette and causes the concentration to be a little lower than actually reported. It should also be noted that the same cuvette was not used throughout the experiment.Different cuvettes are made from different plastics from varying compositions which mean they have different permeability which doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t allow the same wavelengths of light to pass through all of them, thus the colorimeter reads differently which causes errors. The reaction starts off with a purple color as crystal violet is a purple solution and sodium hydroxide is colorless. As time elapses, the violet color starts to fade away and the solution becomes colorless as their product is a colorless aqueous solution.Conclusion: Thus the above experiment concludes that the reaction was first order with respect to crystal violet and also first order with respect to sodium hydroxide. The overall reaction order was 2 with respect to crystal violet and sodium hydroxide. The overall of the rate law for the reaction would be: Rate: k [CV+] [OH-]. To ensure results are more accurate in the future, a single cuvette should be used when carrying out the whole experiment and all of the reagents must be transferred efficiently without loses to and from the beaker to ensure 100% efficiency along with using proper safety equipment while handling chemicals.References: 1. Atkins, P. W. (1978). Physical chemistry. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman. 2. Allen, J. P. (2008). Biophysical chemistry. Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub. 3. Lindon, J. C. , Tranter, G. E. , & Holmes, J. L. (2000). Encyclopedia of spectroscopy and spectrometry. San Diego: Academic Press. Appendix: Solution 1: Order 0, ? RMSE/a? = 0. 01 641/0. 271= 0. 0605 Order 1, ? RMSE/a? = 0. 01129/0. 271= 0. 0416 Order 2, ? RMSE/a? =0. 3810/0. 217= 1. 4050 Solution 2, Order 1, ? RMSE/a? =0. 01566/0. 134= 0. 1169 Solution 3, Order 1, ? RMSE/a? = 0. 00693/0. 492= 0. 0141