Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Essay on Mudras

Essay on Mudras Essay on Mudras Essay on MudrasMudras stand for hand gestures. For several thousands of years mudras have been widely used in India for a number of purposes: in healing process, as storytelling techniques, for emotional expression, in dancing, as well as for evoking the most prominent spiritual conditions. The system of mudras has been elaborated for the application in yoga practices and Indian dancing. In general, there are over 200 hand mudras. Each mudra has its â€Å"specific technique, application, health and spiritual benefits and historical background† (Carroll Carroll 3). Mudras play an important role in the context of traditional spiritual system of India. According to Cain Carroll and Revital Carroll, â€Å"hand mudras or hand gestures have an important role in yogic thought and Indian culture, where they have probably been explained in more detail than perhaps any other tradition† (9). Mudras have an enormous power over human body, solidifying the human body and mind and pr oviding self-enhancement.Some Facts from the History of Mudras  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Mudras have a long and colorful history, but the origin of Mudras remains a mystery. According to some researchers, â€Å"the origin of Mudras date to esoteric Buddhism, particularly the Tendai and Shingon sects†(Menen 42). In ancient India, Mudras were used in martial art. The major purpose of application different Mudras was to generate and effectively use spiritual focus and power in fighting. Experts consider that Mudras have some magical explanations, which are often very difficult to understand. Moreover, Mudras were used in important rituals and rites of the old cultural traditions of Hinduism and Buddhism not only in India, but also in Tibet, Japan, China, Indonesia and other Asian countries. The images of Mudras were found in the cave paintings and sculptures of Ajanta and Ellora caves, which date back to the 2 and 1 centuries BC.Besides, the earliest Hindu know ledge about Mudras was recorded in the â€Å"ancient documentations of Mantra Shastra, or â€Å"the book of incantations†, Upasana Shastra, or â€Å"the book of worship and prayers† and the Nritya Shastra, or â€Å"the book of classical dances† (Bansal). Some experts consider that the science of Mudras was originated from yoga practice as the exercises for relaxation.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In addition, the science of Mudras provides an opportunity to learn how to coordinate the action of five elements in order to awaken the powers of human body. The word â€Å"Mudra† is a Sanskrit word, which means â€Å"sign† or â€Å"seal†. The hand gestures have different positions that help to guide the flow of energy to the brain. The imbalance in human body means that one of five elements is too active, or too weak in its functioning. This imbalance leads to disharmony of the whole system or to various diseases.The Use of Mudras in Practice  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Mudras are used in yoga practice. In yoga, Mudras are considered to be the â€Å"developed forms of asanas† (Ramdev 133). Mudras are closely connected with human senses, and in yoga practice, mudras give positive results. There are two categories of Mudras in yoga practice: first, Mudras as hand gestures that regulate the key element of the system, and, second, â€Å"Mudras that help in awakening the Kundalini and elevating the pranas† (Ramdev 133).   It has been found that the universe involves five elements: fire, air, space, earth and water. Human body also has been made of five elements, and the five fingers stand for these elements: â€Å"the thumb represents fire, index finger –air, middle finger –space, ring finger –earth, and the little finger-water† (Ramdev 133). The major goal of yoga practice is to balance these elements. In Hatha Yoga, there are 25 Mudras that affect vario us processes, including cleansing and breathing exercises.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Besides, Mudras are used in Indian classical dance, such as Nritta dance (â€Å"pure dance†) and Nrytia (â€Å"expressional dance†). According to Cain Carroll and Revital Carroll, â€Å"in classical Indian dance there is a significant emphasis on the conscious formation of hand gestures†(23). An Indian dancer should hold her hands in some specific manner and in the proper Mudra. Researchers state that â€Å"the ground for such a unique feature in a dance form lies in the cultural context it emerged within† (Carroll Carroll 23). As classical Indian dance is closely connected with spiritual rituals and religious philosophy, Mudras help to generate energy that comes from the dancer’s hands. As a rule, Mudras used in the classical Indian dance, are the major tools for storytelling. Mudras help to express the emotions of a dancer. Researchers argue th at â€Å"Mudras are used following the view of Tantra, for the purposes of transformation and evolution by stimulating the flow of Shakti (â€Å"primal force†) in the organs, glands, and nerve channels of the body† (Carroll Carroll 23).  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Moreover, Mudtas are used in Indian iconography, mainly in Hindu and Buddhist art. The ancient scripture NÄ tyaÅ›Ä stra provides a description of 24 asaá ¹ yuta Mudras (one-hand gestures) and 13 saá ¹ yuta Mudras (two-hand gestures). Various hand gestures can be found in Hindu and Buddhist iconography, although there are some differences between iconographic conventions. Researchers believe that various symbolic bone ornaments are also can be viewed as Mudras.Conclusion  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Thus, it is necessary to conclude that Mudras have been used for centuries. Mudras are an essential part of ancient rituals of the established cultural traditions in Hindu ism and Buddhism. Mudras are used not only in yoga practice, but also in Indian classical dance and iconography. People honor Mudras as supreme force of cosmos. Mudras help people to obtain three sublime powers the physical, mental and spiritual powers.

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