Monday, July 22, 2019
Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder Essay Example for Free
Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder Essay Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD) is a personality disorder which is characterized by a pervasive pattern of preoccupation with orderliness, perfectionism, and mental and interpersonal control at the expense of flexibility, openness, and efficiency (Taber, 1968). This pattern begins by early adulthood and is present in a variety of contexts. Individuals with Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder attempt to maintain a sense of control through painstaking attention to rules, trivial details, procedures, lists, schedules, or form to the extent that the major point of the activity is lost (Criterion 1). OCPD and OCD are often confused as they are thought of as being similar. There is, however, a great difference between the two conditions. A person with OCD experience tremendous anxiety related to specific preoccupations, which are perceived as threatening. Within the condition OCPD it is oneÃ¢â¬â¢s dysfunctional philosophy which produces anxiety, anguish and frustration (Phillipson). History of Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder: Back in the early 1900s, Freud observed and treated patients with OCPD. From his findings, he noted, Ã¢â¬Å"persons with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder are characterized by the three Ã¢â¬ËpeculiaritiesÃ¢â¬â¢ of orderliness [which include cleanliness and conscientiousness], parsimony, and obstinacy. Ã¢â¬ He also called it, Ã¢â¬Å"a neurosis connected with difficulties at the anal phase in psychosexual development,Ã¢â¬ and made a distinction between Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD), which he referred to as a Ã¢â¬Å"symptomatic neurosisÃ¢â¬ and OCPD, which he referred to as a Ã¢â¬Å"character neurosisÃ¢â¬ (Skodol Gunderson, 2009). In 1918, Ernest Jones went on to describe someone afflicted with OCPD as being overly concerned with money, cleanliness, and time. The observations from these men were important at the time, because not much was known about this disorder. Literature begot the term Ã¢â¬Å"anal characterÃ¢â¬ , combining the character (personality) neurosis (anxiety), and according to Freud, OCPD begins development in the anal phase of development (Skodal Gunderson, 2009). Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder tends to occur in families, so genes may be involved. A personÃ¢â¬â¢s childhood and environment may also play roles. As with all personality disorders, the person must be at least 18 years old before they can be diagnosed. OCPD is approximately twice as prevalent in males then females, and occurs in about 1 percent of the general population. It is seen in 3 to 10 percent of psychiatric outpatients. Like most personality disorders, Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder typically will decrease in intensity with age, with many people experiencing few of the most extreme symptoms by the time they are in the 40s or 50s. Their ability to work with others is equally affected, since they have symptoms perfectionism. This perfectionism may interfere with the personÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to complete tasks, because their standards are so rigid. People with this disorder may emotionally withdraw when they are not able to control a situation. This can interfere with their ability to solve problems and form close relationships. Personality disorders such as Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder are typically diagnosed by a trained mental health professional, such as a psychologist or psychiatrist. Psychological test that may help diagnose this condition include: Ã¢â¬ ¢The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IV Disorders (SCID II) Ã¢â¬ ¢The Schedule for Non-Adaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP) Treatment options for Obsessive-Compulsion Personality Disorder include medications such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (Prozac) may help reduce some of the anxiety and depression from this disorder. However, talk therapy (psychotherapy) is thought to be the most effective treatment for this condition. Ã¢â¬ ¢Psychodynamic psychotherapy helps patients understand their thoughts and feelings. Ã¢â¬ ¢Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) can also help. In some cases, medications combined with talk therapy may be the more effective than either treatment alone. Hospitalization is rarely needed for people with this disorder, unless an extreme or severe stressor or stressful life event occurs which increases the compulsive behaviors to an extent where regular daily activities are halted or present possible risks of harm to the patient. Many support groups exist within communities throughout the world which are devoted to helping individuals with this disorder share their common experiences and feelings. Such support groups are recommended to individuals suffering from this disorder, especially if they found therapy unhelpful or too expensive. Many people with Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder donÃ¢â¬â¢t seek treatment. People with personality disorders, in general, do not often seek out treatment until the disorder starts to significantly interfere or otherwise impact a personÃ¢â¬â¢s life. I think that the outlook for people with Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder tends to be better than that for other personality disorders. The four major complications for OCPD are: anxiety, depression, difficulty moving forward in career situations and difficulties in relationships. I strongly believe that being informed about this conditionÃ¢â¬â¢s manifestations, people can better seek appropriate treatment.